By using biochemical assessment technique and histological examination,a comparative study of the cutaneous tissues in 16 patients with lymphedema of the lower extremity before and after the heating and bandage therapy, and it was noted thatthe heating and bandage therapy might:(1) the content of hydroxyproline in the affected skin would be decreased; (2) the thickness of skin was decreased and the water content was reduced; (3) the microcirculation of local tissues was enhanced, and (4) the activity of the macrophages was increased. In conjunction with the criteria of clinical observation, the action mechanism of heating and bandage therapy might be as follows: (1) improve the local microcirculation and enhance the resorption of tissue fluid and the protein, and (2) increase the activity of the macrophages, and minimize the extent of fibrosis of the affected tissues.
Objective To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of treatment with Fuzheng Huayu capsule for liver fibrosis of chronic hepatitis B (CHB). Methods We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Database of Controlled Trials (CCTR), CBMweb and CNKI up to March 2008. The references of retrieved literature were also hand searched. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) which compared Fuzheng Huayu capsule with placebo or other drugs were collected. Data extraction and quality assessment were performed by two reviewers independently. The Cochrane Collaboration’ s software RevMan 4.2.10 was used for data analyses. Results Seven RCTs involving 590 cases of liver fibrosis of CHB were included. As for their methodological quality, one was graded A, one was graded B and the others were graded C. We carried out subgroup analyses based on treatment course and intervention measures. In terms of reducing haluronic acid, Fuzheng Huayu capsule was more effective than Huoluo Shugan capsule when the treatment course was 3 months (WMD=–61.75, 95%CI –105.20 to –18.30); significant differences were also noted between Fuzheng Huayu capsule and placebo (WMD=–187.72, 95%CI –244.23 to –31.21) or Huoluo Shugan capsule (WMD=–120.03, 95%CI –158.41 to –81.65) when the treatment course was 6 months. In terms of reducing IV-C, Fuzheng Huayu capsule was more effective than Gantaile when the treatment course was 6 months (WMD=–72.32, 95%CI –84.30 to –60.34). As for improving liver fibrosis at stage S, significant differences were observed between Fuzheng Huayu capsule and Gantaile (RR=2.33, 95%CI 1.37 to 3.96) or Huoluo Shugan capsule (RR=1.30, 95%CI 1.03 to 1.65). Except a very small number of gastrointestinal reactions, no significant adverse reactions were reported. Conclusion Fuzheng Huayu capsule is effective in reducing haluronic acid and improving liver fibrosis at stage S, especially when the treatment course is prolonged from 3 months to 6 months. No significant adverse reactions are reported. Because most of the included trials are of poor quality and small sample size, more high-quality RCTs are needed.
ObjectiveTo summarize the research advancement of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) agonists inhibiting transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)-induced organ fibrosis. MethodsThe related literatures on PPARγ agonists inhibiting TGF-β-induced organ fibrosis were reviewed. ResultsTGF-β was a major fibrosispromoting cytokine, which could promote a variety of organ fibrosis. PPARγ agonists could effectively block TGFβ signal transduction, and then suppressed organ fibrosis well. ConclusionsThe main antifibrotic mechanism of PPARγ agonists is to inhibit TGF-β signal transduction. The studies on this mechanism will help promoting the clinical application of PPARγ agonists, and provide a new way of the treatment for organ fibrosis.
ObjectiveTo investigate the effect of Smad4 on the fibrosis of tendon derived fibroblasts (TDFs) induced by transforming growth factor β1(TGF-β1) by targeted regulation of miRNA219-5P (miR219-5P). MethodsThe tendons donated by the volunteers were harvested to isolate and culture TDFs. The 3rd generation cells were used for experiment. Chemically synthesized miR219-5P mimics, miR219-5P inhibitor, and negative control sequences were transfected into TDFs. The gene expression of miR219-5P in TDFs was detected by real-time PCR, and the protein expression of Smad4 in TDFs was detected by Western blot at 48 hours after transfection. The combining sites of miR219-5P and Smad4 in 3'UTR district were predicted by informatics software. Wild type and mutant type reporter gene expression vectors were constructed and then targeted verification was carried out by the luciferase reporter gene test. Transfected TDFs were then induced by TGF-β1. The proliferation activity of the cells were measured by the cell counting kit 8 after culturing for 24, 48, and 72 hours. The expressions of fibrosis related proteins in TDFs were detected by Western blot at 72 hours. ResultsAfter TDFs were transfected by miR219-5P mimics, miR219-5P expression was significantly up-regulated, but the expressions of Smad4 was decreased subsequently (P<0.05). Intracellular expression of miR219-5P was inhibited by miR219-5P mimics inhibitor, however, the protein expression of Smad4 was significantly increased (P<0.05). Luciferase reporter gene test showed that luciferase activities were significantly decreased in pGL3-WT-Smad4+mimics group, but were significantly increased in pGL3-WT-Smad4+inhibitor group when compared with pGL3-WT-Smad4 transfected group (P<0.05), but no significant difference was found between GL3-MT-Smad4+mimics and pGL3-MT-Smad4+inhibitor groups (P>0.05). Cell proliferation and the fibrosis related proteins were increased in TGF-β1 induced TDFs, however, decreased in TGF-β1 induced TDFs after transfected by miR219-5P inhibitor (P<0.01). ConclusionmiR219-5P can significantly inhibit fibrosis of TDFs induced by TGF-β1 by down-regulating Smad4 expression.
ObjectiveTo investigate the regulatory effect of miRNA-21-5p (miR-21) on spinal fibroblasts, and to explore the mechanism of miR-21 related pathological process of spinal cord injury.MethodsSpinal cord fibroblasts were identified by immunofluorescence. Spinal fibroblasts damage model was established by scratch method. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to determine the relative expression of miR-21 and fibrosis-related genes in spinal cord fibroblasts after injury. The expression of miR-21 in spinal cord fibroblasts was up-regulated and down-regulated by using miR-21 mimics/inhibitor, and the expression levels of apoptosis and proliferation-related proteins were detected by Western Blot (WB).ResultsThe expression of miR-21 and fibrosis-related genes were increased after spinal cord fibroblast scratch (P<0.05). Up-regulation of the miR-21 can increase the expression of apoptosis-related genes in fibroblasts (P<0.05), and vice versa. The proliferation of fibroblasts was consistent with the expression of miR-21, while the apoptosis of fibroblasts was contrary to the expression of miR-21.ConclusionsmiR-21 enhanced the fibrosis and proliferation, inhibited the apoptosis of spinal cord fibroblasts after mechanical injury. This indicates that miR-21 is closely related with the formation of fibrotic scar after spinal cord injury, which also providesa potential therapeutic target for spinal cord injury.
ObjectiveTo investigate the clinical features and prognosis of fibrinous mediastinum and evaluate the value of different examinations in diagnosis and evaluation. MethodsTwenty-eight patients with mediastinal fibrosis diagnosed between January 2015 and September 2020 in China-Japan Friendship Hospital were studied retrospectively. The Clinical manifestations, radiological characteristics, endoscopic features, echocardiography, V/Q SPECT, cardiac catheterization, treatment and prognosis were analyzed.ResultsThe main clinical symptoms were cough (77.6%), expectoration (57.1%), wheezing or suffocating (42.9%), dyspnea (39.3%). There were 67.9% of the cases who were considered previous or present tuberculosis. Imaging findings showed that the fat density in the mediastinum disappeared, the irregular soft tissue of the mediastinum surrounded the airway and pulmonary vessels, and many lymph nodes enlarged and calcified, and multiple bronchus and pulmonary vessels were compressed and narrowed. Pulmonary function was mainly manifested as obstructive ventilate dysfunction and decreased diffusion volume. Under bronchoscopy, the bronchial mucosa showed pigmentation, bronchial distortion or multiple stenosis, even occlusion, and bronchial mucosa edema or congestion. Echocardiography and catheterization of the right heart showed that pulmonary hypertension and diastolic cardiac dysfunction were common complications of fibrillary mediastinum. Pulmonary ventilation perfusion imaging showed impaired blood perfusion in 87.5% of patients and impaired ventilation perfusion in 37.5% of patients. The symptoms of some patients alleviated after anti-infective and symptomatic treatment, but the mediastinal fibrosis was irreversible, and the efficacy of anti-tuberculosis and glucocorticoid therapy was limited. ConclusionsFor patients with clinical consideration of fibrous mediastinum, chest enhanced CT should be performed for clear diagnosis. Relevant examinations, such as pulmonary function, endoscopic, echocardiography, should be conducted to evaluate whether the disease involves airway, pulmonary vessels, pericardium, superior vena cava and esophagus, as well as the degree of functional involvement. Attention should be paid to the evaluation of patients with pulmonary hypertension and diastolic cardiac insufficiency.