ObjectiveTo investigate the clinical features and prognosis of fibrinous mediastinum and evaluate the value of different examinations in diagnosis and evaluation. MethodsTwenty-eight patients with mediastinal fibrosis diagnosed between January 2015 and September 2020 in China-Japan Friendship Hospital were studied retrospectively. The Clinical manifestations, radiological characteristics, endoscopic features, echocardiography, V/Q SPECT, cardiac catheterization, treatment and prognosis were analyzed.ResultsThe main clinical symptoms were cough (77.6%), expectoration (57.1%), wheezing or suffocating (42.9%), dyspnea (39.3%). There were 67.9% of the cases who were considered previous or present tuberculosis. Imaging findings showed that the fat density in the mediastinum disappeared, the irregular soft tissue of the mediastinum surrounded the airway and pulmonary vessels, and many lymph nodes enlarged and calcified, and multiple bronchus and pulmonary vessels were compressed and narrowed. Pulmonary function was mainly manifested as obstructive ventilate dysfunction and decreased diffusion volume. Under bronchoscopy, the bronchial mucosa showed pigmentation, bronchial distortion or multiple stenosis, even occlusion, and bronchial mucosa edema or congestion. Echocardiography and catheterization of the right heart showed that pulmonary hypertension and diastolic cardiac dysfunction were common complications of fibrillary mediastinum. Pulmonary ventilation perfusion imaging showed impaired blood perfusion in 87.5% of patients and impaired ventilation perfusion in 37.5% of patients. The symptoms of some patients alleviated after anti-infective and symptomatic treatment, but the mediastinal fibrosis was irreversible, and the efficacy of anti-tuberculosis and glucocorticoid therapy was limited. ConclusionsFor patients with clinical consideration of fibrous mediastinum, chest enhanced CT should be performed for clear diagnosis. Relevant examinations, such as pulmonary function, endoscopic, echocardiography, should be conducted to evaluate whether the disease involves airway, pulmonary vessels, pericardium, superior vena cava and esophagus, as well as the degree of functional involvement. Attention should be paid to the evaluation of patients with pulmonary hypertension and diastolic cardiac insufficiency.