Background Mortality and morbidity of acute myocardial infarction remains high. Intravenous magnesium started early after the onset of myocardial infarction is a promising adjunctive treatment that may limit infarct size, prevent serious arrhythmias, and reduce mortality. Several earlier trials and meta-analyses demonstrated a mortality rate reduction with magnesium treatment, but one mega trial found no benefit. Objective To examine the effect of intravenous magnesium versus control on early mortality and morbidity, stratified by time since onset of symptoms (lt;6 hours, 6+ hours), use of thrombolysis (used, not used), dose of magnesium used (lt;75 mmol, 75+ mmol). Search strategy We search the Cochrane controlled trial register (CCTR) of Cochrane Library, Medline and Embase. We also search Chinese Biomedical Disk (CBM disk) to identify the Chinese trials. Each database will be searched from its starting date to the first-half year of 2002. Selection criteria All randomized controlled trials that compared intravenous magnesium with placebo in the presence or absence of fibrolytic therapy in addition to routine treatment are eligible if they reported mortality and clinical events within 35 days of onset, regardless of language. Methods of review A data abstraction form will be specifically developed to extract information from the eligible articles. The quality assessment of RCT will be focused on method of treatment assignment, blinding of participants and investigators, control of selection bias after treatment assignment. The selection of studies, data extraction and assessment of methodological quality will be performed independently by two reviewers. Disagreements will be resolved through discussion, when necessary, in consultation with a third reviewer. Publication bias, heterogeneity and sensitivity analysis will be performed. The odds ratio (OR) will be used to pooling the effect if appropriate.
Objective To evaluate the efficacy of asarone injection in treating respiratory disease. Methods All the randomized controlled trials (RCTs) about treating respiratory disease with asarone injection were collected by searching MEDLINE (1990 to 2010), EMbase (1990 to 2010), CSJD (1989 to January 2010) and CNKI (1979 to December 2009). The assessment of methodological quality and data extraction of the included studies were performed independently by two reviewers, and Meta-analysis was conducted with RevMan 5.0 software. Results A total of 29 studies involving 3 931 patients met the inclusion criteria. The results of Meta-analysis showed that: a) Asarone injection was effective in treating respiratory diseases including bronchiolitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD) and AECOPD, bronchitis and pneumonia; b) In treating bronchiolitis, asarone injection was superior to aminophylline, heartleaf houttuynia herb and virazole in total effective rate, and was similar to andrographolide in curative effect; c) In treating COPD and AECOPD, asarone injection was superior to symptomatic treatment and bromhexine in total effective rate, was similar to benzylpenicillin sodium and tablete glycyrrhiza in curative effect, and was inferior to aminophylline in total effective rate without significant difference; d) In treating bronchitis, asarone injection was superior to aminophylline and symptomatic treatment in total effective rate, and was similar to mucosolvin in curative effect; and e) In treating pneumonia, asarone injection was superior to antibiotic, ribavirin and aminophylline in total effective rate. Conclusion Asarone injection is effective in treating respiratory disease. Because of the lower methodological quality and publication bias of the included trials, it is necessary to perform more high-quality and large-scale randomized controlled trials to make the conclusion more reliable.
Objective To explore and compare the diagnostic value of blood pressure, brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP) in evaluating right ventricular dysfunction (RVD) in patients with acute pulmonary embolism (APE). Methods A retrospective study was conducted on 84 APE patients who were diagnosed by computed tomographic pulmonary angiography. The patients were divided into a RVD group and a non-RVD group by echocardiography. Eighteen clinical and auxiliary examination variables were used as the research factors and RVD as the related factor. The relationship between these research factors and RVD were evaluated by logistic regression model, the diagnostic value of BNP and PASP to predict RVD was analyzed by receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Results The patients with RVD had more rapid heart rate, higher diastolic blood pressure, higher mean arterial pressure, higher incidence of BNP>100 pg/ml and higher incidence of PASP>40 mm Hg (allP<0 05="" upon="" logistic="" regression="" model="" bnp="">100 pg/ml (OR=4.904, 95%CI 1.431–16.806, P=0.011) and PASP>40 mm Hg (OR=6.415, 95%CI 1.509–27.261, P=0.012) were independent predictors of RVD. The areas under the ROC curve to predict RVD were 0.823 (95%CI 0.729–0.917) for BNP, and 0.798 (95%CI 0.700–0.896) for PASP. Conclusions Blood pressure related parameters can not serve as a predictor of RVD. Combined monitoring of BNP level and PASP is helpful for accurate prediction of RVD in patients with APE.
【摘要】 目的 探讨六味地黄丸对糖尿病合并高血压病所致慢性肾脏疾病（chronic kidney disease，CKD）患者肾损害及胰岛素抵抗的影响。 方法 收集2008年7月1日-2010年7月1日在成都市第五人民医院住院部及门诊就诊的120例糖尿病合并高血压病患者相关资料，随机分为对照组和治疗组各60例，对照组给予西医治疗，治疗组在西医治疗的基础上加用六味地黄丸，12周为1个疗程。观察治疗前后尿白蛋白∕尿肌酐（ACR），内生肌酐清除率（Ccr）及胰岛素抵抗指数（HOMA-IR）、C反应蛋白（CRP）、血脂等指标的变化。 结果 治疗后治疗组与对照组比较，ACR（P=0.012）、血清CRP（P=0.000）和低密度脂蛋白（P=0.014）差异有统计学意义。HOMA-IR治疗前后结果差异有统计学意义（Plt;0.05），但与对照组比较差异无统计学意义（Pgt;0.05）。 结论 六味地黄丸可改善肾损害实验室指标，改善胰岛素抵抗，减轻体内炎性反应，改善脂代谢异常。【Abstract】 Objective To investigate the efficacy of Liuwei Dihuang pill on patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) induced by diabetes mellitus and hypertensive diseases in terms of renal injury and insulin resistance. Methods We collected the clinical data of 120 patients with diabetes mellitus and hypertensive diseases in the Fifth People’s Hospital of Chengdu from July 1, 2008 to July 1, 2010, and randomly divided them into two groups. In the control group, patients only received therapy of western medicine, while for patients in the treatment group, Liuwei Dihuang pills were added on the basis of western medicine treatment with a treatment course of 12 weeks. Before and after the treatment, urinary albumin / urinary creatinine (ACR), creatinine clearance rate (Ccr) and insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR), C-reactive protein (CRP), and lipids were evaluated and compared. Results After treatment, ACR (P=0.012), serum CRP (P=0.000) and low-density lipoproteins (LDL) (P=0.014) for the treatment group were significantly different from those for the control group. HOMA-IR for the treatment group before and after the treatment was significantly different (Plt;0.05), while there was no statistical difference between the two groups in HOMA-IR (Pgt;0.05). Conclusion Kidney-nourishing therapy with Liuwei Dihuang pill can improve the laboratory indicators of renal injury or insulin resistance, reduce the inflammatory response in vivo, and ameliorate disorders of lipid metabolism.
Objective To discuss the clinical effect and value of stent placement combined with mechanical aspiration thrombectomy for acute iliofemoral venous thrombosis with iliac vein occlusion. Methods From October 2004 to December 2011， interventional treatment were performed in 273 patients with acute iliofemoral venous thrombosis and iliac vein occlusion， including left side of 235 cases and right side of 38 cases. Antegrade femoral vein under local anesthesia， an 8-14F catheter was inserted into iliofemoral vein with the guidance of guide wire to aspirate thrombus directly， 53 patients used 18-24F large lumen sheath to aspirate thrombus. As for the femoralpopliteal vein thrombus， a “cross sheath” was inserted to affected iliac vein with the help of guide wire capture technique， a guide wire was introd-uced to popliteal vein， then a Fogarty balloon catheter was inserted and extracted thrombus to iliac vein， mechanical aspiration thrombectomy was performed again. After iliofemoral vein thrombus were removed completely， percutaneous transluminal angioplasty （PTA） and stenting were performed for stenosis or occlusion displayed by venography. Results Thrombus removal were completely cleared （degreeⅢ） in 219 cases （80.22%）， partly cleared （degreeⅡ） in 49 cases （17.95%）， and minimal cleared （degreeⅠ） in 5 cases （1.83%）. The effect of stent placement：were cured in 235 cases （86.08%）， excellent in 29 cases （10.62%）， mild in 2 cases （2.57%）， and invalid in 7 cases （0.73%）. Total effective rate was 99.27% （271/273）， the average days in hospital was 7.5 days. Tumescence and pain of affected limb disappeared or relieved after interventional therapy for 1-2 days. The followe up effect：3-6 months， 7-12 months， 13-24 months， and 25-36 months after treatment of iliac vein patency were 94.87%，93.73%，87.08%，and 84.13% respectively. Conclusion Mechanical aspiration thrombectomy combined with stent placement for acute lower extremity deep venous thrombosis and iliac vein obstruction is an effective and safe treatment for its notable therapeutic effect and the short hospitalization time.
Objective To investigate the effects of ginkgo biloba extract （GBE） on expressions of IL-1β, IL-6,and TNF-α in the pancreas and brain tissues of rats with severe acute pancreatitis （SAP）, and further to explore the pathogenesis of SAP and the efficacy of GBE on brain injury. Methods Fifty-four Winstar rats were randomly divided into normal control group, model group, and treatment group, with 18 rats for each group. For rats in the normal control group, only conversion of pancreas was performed by abdomen opening , followed by wound closure immediately. For rats in the model group and treatment group, 5% sodium taurocholate hydrate were injected under pancreatic capsule to establish SAP model, and then GBE and normal saline were infected into intra-abdomen repeatedly every 8 hours, respectively. At 6 h, 12 h, and 24 h after the model establishment, experimental samples were extracted and serum amylase was detected. Pathogenic scoring for pancreas tissues was performed under light microscopy, and immunohistochemistry method was employed to detect the expression levels of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α in pancreas and brain tissues. Results For the treatment group, both serum amylase and pancreas scoring were significantly lower than those of the model group （P＜0.01）. At 24 h after model establishment, the expressions of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α of pancreas tissues in model group were significantly higher than those at 6 h and 12 h （P＜0.05 or P＜0.01）, but no significant differences wereobserved in treatment group （P＞0.05）. The expressions of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α of brain tissues in model group were significantly higher than those at 6 h and 12 h （P＜0.05 or P＜0.01）, but in treatment group decreased （P＜0.05 or P＜0.01）. The expressions of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α in the treatment group were significantly lower than those of the model group at same time （P＜0.01）. Conclusions During SAP, the expressions of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α in pancreas and brain tissues increased obviously. GBE showed suppressing and scavenging effects on IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α in pancreas and brain tissues.
Objective To systematically review respiratory muscle training (RMT) on respiratory functions of patients with spinal cord injury (SCI). Methods PubMed, EMbase and The Cochrane Library were electronically searched to collect the randomized controlled trials (RCTs) about RMT on pulmonary functions in patients with SCI from inception to April, 2017. Two reviewers independently screened literature, extracted data and assessed the risk of bias of included studies, then, meta-analysis was performed by using RevMan 5.3 software. Results A total of 11 RCTs involving 263 patients were included. The results of meta-analysis showed that, compared with conventional rehabilitation group, RMT effectively improved vital capacity (MD=0.41, 95%CI 0.12 to 0.69, P=0.005), inspiratory capacity (MD=0.35, 95%CI 0.05 to 0.65, P=0.02), maximal inspiratory pressure (MD=7.75, 95%CI 0.11 to 15.39, P=0.05) and maximal voluntary ventilation (MD=17.52, 95%CI 8.11 to 26.93, P=0.000 3). There were significant differences between two groups. Conclusion Current evidence shows that RMT can effectively improve the respiratory function of patients with SCI. Due to limited quality and quantity of the included studies, more high quality studies are needed to verify above conclusion.
ObjectivesTo systematically review the efficacy of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on rehabilitation of unilateral neglect in stroke patients.MethodsPubMed, The Cochrane Library, PEDro, EMbase, CNKI, WanFang Data and VIP databases were searched online for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of rTMS on rehabilitation of unilateral neglect in stroke patients from inception to March 2017. Two reviewers independently screened literature, extracted data and assessed the quality of included studies. Meta-analysis was then performed by using RevMan 5.3 software.ResultsA total of 12 RCTs involving 303 patients were included. The results of meta-analysis showed that: the stimulate group was superior to the control group in line bisection test (MD=–5.54, 95%CI –6.79 to –4.29, P<0.000 01), line cancellation test (MD=–3.75, 95%CI –4.60 to –2.90,P<0.000 1) and star cancellation test (MD=–22.94, 95%CI –26.52 to –19.35,P<0.000 01). However, there was no significant difference in the score of the modified Barthel index between two groups (MD=3.91, 95%CI–9.52 to 17.34,P=0.57).ConclusionsrTMS appears to improve the symptoms of unilateral neglect in stroke patients. Due to limited quality and quantity of the included studies, more high quality studies are needed to verify above conclusions.
ObjectiveTo analyze the risk factors of cognitive dysfunction in patients with epilepsy, and provide evidence for clinical prevention and treatment.MethodsDuring the period from January 1, 2018 to January 31, 2019, 101 patients with epilepsy who were admitted to the epilepsy specialist clinic of the General Hospital of Ningxia Medical University were included in this study. The cognitive function of the patients was evaluated by the Mini-mental State Examination (MMSE) scale and patients were divided into cognitive impairment group and normal cognitive function group according to the MMSE. Single factor and logistic regression analysis were used to find the differences of influencing factors between the two groups.Results① There were 27 cases of cognitive dysfunction in 101 patients with epilepsy, the incidence of cognitive impairment was 26.7%; ② Univariate analysis showed that the course of disease, frequency of seizures, seizure forms, anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) and abnormal rate of electroencephalogram (EEG) existed significant differences between the two groups (P<0.05). ③ Logistic regression showed that course of disease, frequency of seizures and AEDs multidrug therapy were independent risk factors for cognitive dysfunction in patients with epilepsy (P<0.05).ConclusionCourse of disease, frequency of seizures and AEDs multidrug therapy are independent risk factors for cognitive dysfunction in patients with epilepsy.
ObjectiveTo investigate the effectiveness of total elbow arthroplasty (TEA) with preservation of triceps brachii insertion approach.MethodsBetween January 2012 and September 2017, 17 patients with elbow disease were treated with TEA with preservation of triceps brachii insertion approach. There were 3 males and 14 females, with an average age of 65.2 years (range, 48-85 years). The injuries located on left elbow in 5 cases and on right elbow in 12 cases. There were 11 cases of distal humerus fracture (AO type C1 in 2 cases and type C3 in 9 cases); the interval between fracture and operation was 3-10 days (mean, 4.1 days). There were 3 cases of osteoarthritis and 3 cases of rheumatoid arthritis, with the disease duration of 2-26 years (mean, 8.7 years). The postoperative elbow function and pain was assessed by Mayo elbow performance score (MEPS) and visual analogue scale (VAS) score, respectively. The prosthesis position, heterotopic ossification, and periprosthetic fracture were observed by X-ray films.ResultsAll incisions healed by first intention. Sixteen patients were followed up 18-69 months (mean, 40.6 months). Intraoperative ulnar nerve injury occurred in 2 cases, and healed after symptomatic treatment. At last follow-up, the MEPS score was 55-100 (mean, 90.3). The results were excellent in 11 cases, good in 2 cases, fair in 2 cases, and poor in 1 case, with an excellent and good rate of 81.3%. The VAS score was 0-2 (mean, 0.4). X-ray reexamination showed that no polyethylene wear, prosthesis loosening and fracture, abnormal prosthesis position, periprosthetic fracture occurred during the follow-up period, and the prosthesis survival rate was 100%. Heterotopic ossification occurred in 2 and 3 months after operation in 2 cases, respectively.ConclusionThe triceps on approach for TEA are satisfactory for distal humerus fracture, osteoarthritis, and rheumatoid arthritis.