Objective To examine the characteristics of Rhodococcus equi (R. equi) infection for better awareness of this disease.Methods The clinical data of a patient with pulmonary abscess caused by R. equi after renal transplantation were reported. We also reviewed the reports of infections caused by R. equi.Results The clinical manifestations and laboratory examination of the patient were consistent with the characteristics of R. equi infection. The growth of R. equi was found in sputum and blood culture. The follow-up data showed that the treatment was effective. Literature search identified 23 similar patients. In all the 24 patients (containing this one), the time of infection after renal transplantation ranged from 4 months to 11 years. There were 21 patients with cumulative pulmonary infection, and 10 patients had a clear epidemiological history of direct or indirect contact with horses. Eighteen patients improved after regular antibacterial treatment or surgical treatment.Conclusions Opportunistic infections caused by R. equi mainly affect transplant recipients and other patients with lower immunity. Infections caused by R. equi may affect many organ systems with various manifestations. The optimal therapy is not established due to the rarity of this infection. Clinicians should select antibiotic agents rationally based on antimicrobial susceptibility testing and treatment response of patients.
WANG Neng, TANG Congchen, WANG Lichun. Pulmonary abscess caused by Rhodococcus equi : a case report and literature review. Chinese Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 2021, 20(8): 558-563. doi: 10.7507/1671-6205.202107035