Objective To analyze the influencing factors of short-term curative effect and long-term survival time of patients with tumor-induced malignant central airway obstruction (MCAO) after airway stent implantation. Methods A total of 120 patients with tumor-induced MCAO who underwent airway stent implantation in the hospital from January 2017 to June 2019 were enrolled. According to the cause of stenosis, the patients were divided into two groups: external pressure stenosis group (n=72) and non-external pressure stenosis group (n=48). The general data such as types and staging of tumor, differentiation degree, sites of airway obstruction, obstruction degree and preoperative level of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Before and at 7d after stent implantation, partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2), partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide (PaCO2) and saturation of arterial blood oxygen (SaO2) were detected. Before and at 1 month after stent implantation, diameter at airway obstruction segment, degree of airway obstruction and forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1) were detected. Dyspnea index (DI) and scores of Karnofsky performance status (KPS) were evaluated. The survival status at 1 year after surgery was followed up. The survival at 1 year after surgery was analyzed by Kaplan-Meier. The influencing factors of survival after stent implantation were analyzed by COX proportional hazard regression analysis. Results After stent implantation, PaO2, SaO2, diameter at airway obstruction segment, FEV1 and KPS score were significantly increased (P<0.05), while PaCO2, degree of airway obstruction and DI were significantly decreased in external pressure stenosis group and non-external pressure stenosis group (P<0.05). After stent implantation, the KPS score was significantly higher in external pressure stenosis group than that in non-external pressure stenosis group, and the shortness of breath index was significantly lower than that in non-external pressure stenosis group (P<0.05). The survival rate of patients with external pressure stenosis group was 29.17%, and the median survival time was 7.35 months, the survival rate and median survival time in non-external pressure stenosis group was 22.92%, and the median survival time was 6.10 months, and there was no significant difference between the two groups (log-rank χ2=1.542, P=0.214). COX proportional hazard regression analysis showed that tumor staging at stage IV (OR=2.056, P=0.020), preoperative KPS score lower than 50 points (OR=2.002, P=0.027) and no postoperative chemoradiotherapy (OR=4.292, P=0.039) were independent influencing factors of 1-year survival time after stent implantation in MCAO patients. Conclusions The clinical curative effect of airway stent implantation is good on patients with tumor-induced MCAO. Tumor staging at stage IV, preoperative KPS score lower than 50 points and no postoperative chemoradiotherapy are risk factors that affect survival time.
TANG Fei, LV Liping, FAN Xiaoyun. Influencing factors of short-term curative effect and long-term survival time of patients with malignant central airway obstruction after airway stent implantation. Chinese Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 2021, 20(9): 643-648. doi: 10.7507/1671-6205.202010033